- Recall calculating relative atomic mass and rearranging this calculation
- Explain how mass spectrometer works and what it measures
- Calculate TOF for given ions
- Interpret simple mass spectra of elements and calculate relative atomic mass
- Write electron configurations of atoms and ions in terms of s, p and d electrons
- Identify an element from its successive ionisation energies
- Describe general trends in ionisation energies
Amount of Substances
- Define relative atomic mass (Ar), relative molecular mass (molecular compounds) (Mr) or formula mass (ionic compounds) (Mr) in terms of 12C.
- Use the expression n=m/Mr to calculate mass of substance, Mr, and amount in moles
- Use the expression n=C/V to calculate concentration, volume and amount of substance (moles) in a solution.
- Use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT to calculate any of the variables p, V n, R or T converting units correctly.
- Calculate Empirical Formula given data on composition by mass or percentage by mass.
- Calculate Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula and relative molecular mass.
- Explain the properties of ionic compounds using an understanding of ionic bonding. Draw dot and cross diagrams for covalently bonded compounds with multiple bonds.
- Explain why some molecules are polar and deduce whether a molecule has a permanent dipole
- Explain why electronegativity trends.
- Explain how melting and boiling points are influenced by these intermolecular forces.
- Predict the shape and give bond angles of simple molecules and ions up to six electron pairs.
- How do we draw enthalpy diagrams and perform calorimetry calculations
- Construct hesses cycles and perform hesses cycle calculations for the enthalpy of combustion and formation
- Conduct Bond enthalpy calculations and calculate missing bond enthalpy values
Oxidation, Reduction and REDOX
Periodicity, Group 2 and Group 4
- Describe and explain the trends across Period 3
- Write equations for group 2 metals and explain trends in solubility of group 2 sulphates and hydroxides
- Explain the uses of group 2 compounds
- Describe and explain the trends down group 7 and in oxidising power of the halogens, illustrated by displacement reactions of halide ions an construct half and ionic equations.
- Describe and explain the trends in reducing power of the halide ions, illustrated by reactions of concentrated sulfuric acid with solid sodium halides.
- Describe disproportionation reactions and describe the reactions of chlorine with water.
- Determine the oxidation of elements in a compounds and practice half equations and combining them
Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to name and draw structural and skeletal organic compounds limited to chains and rings with up to six carbon atoms each
- Draw the structures of chain, position and functional group isomers
- Draw the structural formulas of E and Z isomers
Alkanes and Haloalkanes
- To be to write equations for initiation, propagation, and termination and explain the formation of a mixture of organic products.
- Explain the how fractional distillation, catalytic and thermal cracking work
- Describe the combustion of alkanes
- Explain how and why Halogenoalkanes undergo substitution reactions with the nucleophiles
- Outline the nucleophilic substitution mechanisms of reactions and explain the relative rates of reactions
- Show the mechanism for elimination reactions in haloalkanes
- Explain the conditions that favour an elimination reaction rather than substitution
- Use equations, such as the following, to explain how chlorine atoms catalyse decomposition of ozone
Alkenes and alcohols
- Explain how alkenes undergo addition reactions with electrophiles
- Outline the addition mechanisms of reactions
- Explain the formation of major and minor products by reference to the relative stabilities of primary, secondary and tertiary carbocation intermediates.
- Explain why making bioethanol from fermentation of glucose is carbon neutral, using balanced symbol equations.
- Outline the mechanism for the formation of an alcohol by the reaction of an alkene with steam in the presence of an acid catalyst and the dehydration of a alcohol
- Write equations for these oxidation reactions for primary, secondary or tertiary alcohols (equations showing [O] as oxidant are acceptable)
- Use chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones including Fehling’s solution and Tollens’ reagent
- Describe what must happen before a reaction will take place. Explain why factors affect the rate of reaction. Explain why all collision do not result in a reaction
- Explain how temperature affects the number of molecules with energy equal to or more than the activation energy
- Explain why a small increase in temperature has a large effect on rate of reaction
- To use a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution to help explain how a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction involving a gas.
- To describe homogeneous and heterogenous catalyst
- Use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict qualitatively
- The effect of changes in temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of equilibrium
- Explain why, for a reversible reaction used in an industrial process, a compromise temperature and pressure maybe used.
- To construct an expression for Kc for a homogenous system in equilibrium
- To calculate a value for Kc from the equilibrium concentrations at constant temperature using ICE Tables
- Predict qualitative effects of changes if temp, conc., pressure, catalyst on the value of Kc
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